Markus Fiskesjö, Cornell University

Bibliographies of Select News Reports and Academic Works

This bibliography contains an extensive list of sources related to the re-education camps and forced assimilation in Xinjiang. The list is constantly updated and suggestions to new additions are also welcome.


Darren Byler, University of Colorado, Boulder

Darren Byler’s Xinjiang Column on SupChina

Darren Byler, PhD, is a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Asian Studies at the University of Colorado, Boulder. His research is centered on the technology and the politics of urban life in Central Asia. His column on SupChina focuses on societal conditions and human rights abuses in the Xinjiang region.

Development of Re-Education Camps

A Uighur woman stands beside a propaganda painting showing soldiers meeting with a Uighur family, outside a military hospital near Kashgar in China's northwest Xinjiang region on July 2, 2019.
Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian, Cornell University

The World Bank Was Warned About Funding Repression in Xinjiang

Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian shows that when the World Bank gave a $50 million loan to China for the purpose of education and vocational project in Xinjiang, it was warned numerous times that it was potentially funding repressive projects. The World Bank moved forward with the loan, stating that the project had been thoroughly vetted.

International Responses

Hayley Byrd, CNN, 14 May 2020

Senate Approves Human Rights Bill

The US Senate approves a bill, officially titled the Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act of 2020, to sanction the Chinese Government for detaining Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities within re-education camps and putting them in forced labour. If enacted, the White House will submit a report to Congress with individuals responsible, where sanctions will be imposed.


Tom Miles, Reuters, 12 July 2019

Saudi Arabia and Russia Among 37 States Backing China’s Xinjiang Policy

In response to a letter authored mostly by countries within the Transatlantic Sphere to the UN, 37 countries have written their own letter supporting China’s policy of anti-terrorism in Xinjiang. The list of countries includes Russia, Saudi Arabia, and many other majority-Muslim nations. The letter also praises China’s effort of de-radicalization while still upholding human rights. This list would later increase to 54 countries in another UN conference in October.

The gate of what is officially known as a vocational skills education center in Xinjiang, in western China.
, The New York Times, 10 July 2019

China Rebuked by 22 Nations Over Xinjiang Repression

In a letter to the UN Commissioner for Human Rights, a group of 22 mostly-western countries issues a joint statement condemning China for detaining up to two million Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities in Xinjiang. It is the first major international statement that has challenged China’s mass-detention policy.

The Surveillance State in Xinjiang


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Adrian Zenz, Medium, 13 October 2020

Parent-Child Separation in Yarkand County, Kashgar

This report dives into family separation policy taking place in Xinjiang, specifically Yarkand County. Utilizing government documents and internal memos, Zenz creates a picture of what happens to the children of parents who are placed in detention centers throughout Xinjiang. Coined “hardship children”, the article follows the expansion of boarding schools throughout the region and the intensive surveillance network accompanied with it in order to monitor the children.

A man walks past a screen showing images of Chinese President Xi Jinping in Kashgar in China's northwest Xinjiang region on June 4, 2019.
Rayhan Asat and Yunah Diamond, Foreign Policy, 15 July 2020

The World’s Most Technologically Sophisticated Genocide Is Happening in Xinjiang

This article describes the latest reports from Xinjiang which documents that Uyghurs have been forced to be sterilized, as well as caches of products with human hair that was forcefully removed from imprisoned Uyghurs. It also points out that China is a signatory to the Genocide Convention and argues the US must take action.

Isobel Cockerell, Wired Magazine, 9 May 2019

Inside China’s Massive Surveillance Operation

Isobel Cockerell discusses both the system of surveillance in Xinjiang, as well as how escaped Xinjiang residents have been resisting digital oppression elsewhere.

A Project Beauty poster that was posted throughout the Uyghur neighborhoods of Ürümchi at the beginning of the People’s War on Terror
Darren Byler and Timothy Grose, Dissent Magazine, 31 October 2018

China’s Surveillance Laboratory

Darren Byler and Timothy Grose discuss the various features of the surveillance state that has been implemented in Xinjiang, such as security checkpoints, mosque monitoring, and tracking biometric data.

Uyghur Biodata Collection in China
Mercy A. Kuo, The Diplomat, 28 December 2017

Uyghur Biodata Collection in China

Mercy A. Kuo interviews Darren Byler for insights on the development of technology developing biometric data, the response from the Uyghur population, and policy implications for the future.